[Latin name, Mars or Martis; Japanese name, Kasei]
the fourth planet from the Sun, having a reddish-orange surface with numerous dark patches and two white polar caps. It has a thin atmosphere, mainly carbon dioxide, and low surface temperatures. Spacecraft encounters have revealed a history of volcanic activity and running surface water.
the planet has two tiny satellites, Phobos and Deimos.
mean distance from Sun: 228 million km;
period of revolution around Sun: 686.98 days;
period of axial rotation: 24.6225 hours;
diameter and mass: 53.2 and 10.7 per cent that of Earth, respectively
Also called: the Red Planet
[Collins English Dictionary]
Originally, Mars is the Roman god of war, the father of Romulus and Remus (founders of Rome), associated to Greek Ares.
A planet with the oldest history of settlers. The first emigration to Mars occurred by ES 53. After the geocatastrophe, construction of a full-scale colony began in ES 235, but ease of emigration and a comparatively hospitable environment led to oversettling - and a prolonged civil war. The planet remains divided to this day. Making space access difficult, more than 80% of the surface is covered by a canopy that is self-repaired by nanomachines. Squabbles erupt over control of orbiting mirror satellites that supplement the insufficient sunlight, but the atmosphere is breathable.
Four roughly divided groups currently fight for supremacy:
MRH (Mars Republik Heer): Mars Republic Army: funded by République Vénus to unify Mars and make it join the République.
MFB (Mars Front der Befreien): Mars Liberation Front: funded by the Jupiter Union to unify Mars and make it join the Union.
Mars Kingdom Parliament: Ladder-spearheaded attempt at constitutional monarchy.
Neo Third Reich Division: an emergent group calling itself the Last Battalion that aims to unify Mars, resurrect the Third Reich, and conquer the entire galaxy.
[As explained in Last Order, volume 3, Angel Eternal, page 89]
Please observe that in the story the Martians have German origin.