[Latin name, Sol; Japanese name, Taiyou]
the star that is the source of heat and light for the planets in the solar system. It is a gaseous body having a highly compressed core, in which energy is generated by thermonuclear reactions (at about 15 million °C), surrounded by a less dense convective zone serving to transport the energy to the surface (the photosphere). The atmospheric layers (the chromosphere and corona) are normally invisible except during a total eclipse. Mass and diameter: 333 000 and 109 times that of earth respectively; mean distance from earth: 149.6 million km (1 astronomical unit)
Related adjective: solar
[Collins English Dictionary]
The solar system comprehends eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. There are also five dwarf planets: Eris, Pluto, Ceres (no longer classified as an asteroid), Haumea and Makemake.